Friday, June 21, 2013

Civil Code of Japan

Civil Code (Part I, Part II, and Part III)

(Act No. 89 of April 27, 1896)

Part I General Provisions
Chapter I Common Provisions

(Fundamental Principles)
Article 1  (1) Private rights must conform to the public welfare.
(2) The exercise of rights and performance of duties must be done in good faith.
(3) No abuse of rights is permitted.

(Standard for Construction)
Article 2  This Code must be construed in accordance with honoring the dignity of individuals and the essential equality of both sexes.

Chapter II Person
Section 1 Capacity to Hold Rights

Article 3  (1) The enjoyment of private rights shall commence at birth.
(2) Unless otherwise provided by applicable laws, regulations or treaties, foreign nationals shall enjoy private rights.

Section 2 Capacity to Act

(Age of Majority)
Article 4  The age of majority is reached when a person has reached the age of 20.

(Juristic Act of Minors)
Article 5  (1) A minor must obtain the consent of his/her statutory agent to perform any juristic act; provided, however, that, this shall not apply to an act merely intended to acquire a right or to be relieved of a duty.
(2) A juristic act in contravention of the provision of the preceding paragraph may be rescinded.
(3) Notwithstanding the provision of paragraph (1), in cases the statutory agent permits the disposition of property by specifying the purpose thereof, a minor may freely dispose of the same to the extent of such purpose. The same shall apply in cases his/her statutory agent permits the disposition of the property without specifying any purpose.

(Permission for Minors to Carry on Business)
Article 6  (1) A minor who is permitted to carry on one or more kinds of business shall have the same capacity to act as a person of the age of majority as far as such business is concerned.
(2) In the case set forth in the preceding paragraph, if the minor may be unable to perform the relevant business for any reason, his/her statutory agent may revoke or limit permission in accordance with the provisions of Part IV (Relatives).

(Ruling for Commencement of Guardianship)
Article 7  With respect to any person who constantly lacks the capacity to discern right and wrong due to mental disability, the family court may order the commencement of guardianship at the request of the person in question, his/her spouse, any relative within the fourth degree of kinship, the guardian of a minor, the supervisor of the guardian of a minor, the curator, the supervisor of the curator, the assistant, the supervisor of the assistant, or a public prosecutor.

(Adult Ward and Guardian of Adult)
Article 8  A person who has become subject to the ruling of commencement of guardianship shall be an adult ward, and a guardian of an adult shall be appointed for him/her.

(Juristic Act of an Adult Ward under Guardianship)
Article 9  A juristic act performed by an adult ward may be rescinded; provided, however, that, this shall not apply to any act relating to daily life, such as the purchase of daily household items.

(Rescission of Ruling for Commencement of Guardianship)
Article 10  When the cause set forth in Article 7 ceases to exist, the family court must rescind the ruling of the commencement of guardianship at the request of the person in question, his/her spouse, any relative within the fourth degree of kinship, the guardian (hereinafter referring to the guardian of a minor and the guardian of an adult), the supervisor of the guardian (hereinafter referring to the supervisor of the guardian of a minor and the supervisor of the guardian of an adult), or a public prosecutor.

(Ruling of Commencement of Curatorship)
Article 11  With respect to any person who whose capacity is extremely insufficient to appreciate right or wrong due to any mental disability, the family court may order the commencement of curatorship upon a request by the person in question, his/her spouse, any relative within the fourth degree of kinship, the guardian, the supervisor of the guardian, the assistant, the supervisor of the assistant, or a public prosecutor; provided however, that, this shall not apply to any person in respect of whom a cause set forth in Article 7 exists.

(Person under Curatorship and his/her Curator)
Article 12  A person who has become subject to the ruling of commencement of curatorship shall be the person under curatorship, and a curator shall be appointed for him/her.

(Acts Requiring Consent of Curator)
Article 13  (1) A person under curatorship must obtain the consent of his/her curator if he/she intends to perform any of the following acts; provided, however, that, this shall not apply to the acts provided for in the proviso of Article 9:
(i) receive or use any principal;
(ii) borrow any money or guarantee any obligation;
(iii) perform any act with the purpose of obtaining or relinquishing any right regarding real estate or other valuable property;
(iv) take any procedural action;
(v) make a gift, make any settlement, or agree to arbitrate (referring to the agreement to arbitrate as provided in paragraph (1), Article 2 of the Arbitration Act (Act No. 138 of 2003));
(vi) accept or renounce any inheritance, or partition any estate;
(vii) refuse an offer of a gift, renounce any bequest, accept the offer of gift with burden, or accept any bequest with burden;
(viii) effect any new construction, renovation, expansion, or major repairs; or
(ix) make any lease agreement with a term which exceeds the period set forth in Article 602.
(2) At the request of the person provided in the main clause of Article 11, or any curator or any supervisor of the curator, the family court may make a ruling that the person under curatorship must obtain the consent of his/her curator even in cases he/she intends to perform any act other than those set forth in each item of the preceding paragraph; provided, however, that this shall not apply to the acts provided for in the proviso to Article 9.
(3) With respect to any act which requires the consent of the curator, if the curator does not give consent in cases where the interest of the person under curatorship is unlikely to be prejudiced, the family court may, at the request of the person under curatorship, give permission in lieu of the consent of the curator.
(4) An act which requires the consent of the curator may be rescinded if it was performed without such consent or any permission in lieu thereof.

(Rescission of Ruling of Commencement of Curatorship)
Article 14  (1) When the cause provided in the main clause of Article 11 ceases to exist, the family court must rescind the order of the commencement of curatorship at the request of the person in question, his/her spouse, any relative within the fourth degree of kinship, the guardian of a minor, the supervisor of the guardian of a minor, the curator, the supervisor of the curator, or a public prosecutor.
(2) At the request of the person prescribed in the preceding paragraph, the family court may rescind, in whole or in part, the ruling under paragraph (2) of the preceding Article.

(Ruling of Commencement of Assistance)
Article 15  (1) With respect to any person who has insufficient capacity to appreciate right or wrong due to any mental disability, the family court may rule the commencement of assistance upon a request by the person in question, his/her spouse, any relative within the fourth degree of kinship, the guardian, the supervisor of the guardian, the curator, the supervisor of the curator, or a public prosecutor; provided, however, that, this shall not apply to any person who has the cause set forth in Article 7 or the main clause of Article 11.
(2) The ruling of commencement of assistance at the request of any person other than the person in question shall require the consent of the person in question.
(3) The ruling of commencement of assistance must be made concurrent with the ruling under paragraph (1) of Article 17 or the ruling under paragraph (1) of Article 876-9.

(Person under Assistance and Assistant)
Article 16  A person who has become subject to the ruling of commencement of assistance shall be a person under assistance, and an assistant shall be appointed for him/her.

(Ruling Requiring Person to Obtain Consent of Assistant)
Article 17  (1) At the request of the person provided in the main clause of paragraph (1) of Article 15, or any assistant or supervisor of the assistant, the family court may make the ruling that the person under assistance must obtain the consent of his/her assistant if he/she intends to perform any particular juristic act; provided, however, that the act for which such consent must be obtained pursuant to such ruling shall be limited to the acts provided in paragraph (1) of Article 13.
(2) The ruling set forth in the preceding paragraph at the request of any person other than the person in question shall require the consent of the person in question.
(3) With respect to any act which requires the consent of the assistant, if the assistant does not give consent in cases where the interest of the person under assistance is unlikely to be prejudiced, the family court may, at the request of the person under assistance, give permission which is in lieu of the consent of the assistant.
(4) An act which requires the consent of the assistant may be rescinded if it was performed without such consent or any permission in lieu thereof.

(Rescission of Ruling of Commencement of Assistance)
Article 18  (1) When the cause provided in the main clause of paragraph (1) of Article 15 ceases to exist, the family court must rescind the ruling of commencement of assistance at the request of the person in question, his/her spouse, any relative within the fourth degree of kinship, the guardian of a minor, the supervisor of the guardian of a minor, the assistant, the supervisor of the assistant, or a public prosecutor.
(2) At the request of the person prescribed in the preceding paragraph, the family court may rescind, in whole or in part, the ruling under paragraph (1) of the preceding Article.
(3) In cases the ruling under paragraph (1) of the preceding Article and the order under paragraph (1) of Article 876-9 are to be rescinded in their entirety, the family court must rescind the ruling of commencement of assistance.

(Relationship between Rulings)
Article 19  (1) In cases any ruling for commencement of guardianship is to be made, and the person in question is a person under curatorship or the person under assistance, the family court must rescind the ruling of commencement of curatorship or commencement of assistance pertaining to such person in question.
(2) The provisions of the preceding paragraph shall apply mutatis mutandis in cases where the person in question, upon ruling of commencement of curatorship, is an adult ward or a person under assistance, or in cases where the person in question is, at the time of the ruling for commencement of assistance, an adult ward or a person under curatorship.

(Right of Demand by Person who is Counterparty to Person with Limited Capacity)
Article 20  (1) The person who is the counterparty to a person with limited capacity (hereinafter referring to any minor, an adult ward, a person under curatorship, and a person under assistance who has become subject to the ruling under paragraph (1) of Article 17) may, after such person with limited capacity has become a person with capacity (hereinafter referring to a person free of any limitation on capacity to act), issue to such person a notice which demands, by establishing a certain period which is one month or more, that he/she should give a definite answer on whether or not such person will ratify such act which may be rescinded within such period. In such case, if such person fails to send any definite answer within such period, he/she is deemed to have ratified such act.
(2) The second sentence of the preceding paragraph shall likewise apply in cases where, while such person with limited capacity has not yet become a person with capacity, the person who is the counterparty to the person with limited capacity issues to the statutory agent, curator, or assistant of such person a notice prescribed in the preceding paragraph with respect to any act which is under the authority of any such officer, and the statutory agent, curator or assistant fails to issue any definite answer within the period referred to in such paragraph.
(3) With respect to any act which requires any special formalities, if no notice to the effect that the perfection of such formalities has been completed is issued within the period set forth in the preceding two paragraphs, it is deemed that such act has been rescinded.
(4) The person who is the counterparty to a person with limited capacity may issue a notice to any person under curatorship, or to any person under assistance who has been made subject to the ruling under paragraph (1) of Article 17 which demands that he/she should obtain the ratification of his/her curator or assistant, as the case may be, within the period set forth in paragraph (1) above. In such case, if the person under curatorship or person under assistance fails to issue, within the applicable period, a notice to the effect that such ratification has been obtained, it is deemed that such act has been rescinded.

(Fraudulent Means Committed by Person with Limited Capacity)
Article 21  If a person with limited capacity manipulates any fraudulent means to induce others to believe that he/she is a person with capacity, his/her act may not be rescinded.

Section 3 Domicile

(Domicile)
Article 22  The principal place wherein a person lives shall be his/her domicile.

(Residence)
Article 23  (1) If the domicile of a person is unknown, his/her residence is deemed to be his/her domicile.
(2) If a person does not have the domicile in Japan, his/her residence is deemed to be his/her domicile, whether he/she is a Japanese or a foreign national; provided, however, that, this shall not apply where the law of domicile controls in accordance with the applicable provision of laws which provide the governing law.

(Temporary Domicile)
Article 24  If any temporary domicile is selected for any act, such temporary domicile is deemed to be the domicile as far as such act is concerned.

Section 4 Management of Absentee Property and Adjudication of Disappearance

(Administration of Absentee Property)
Article 25  (1) In cases any person who has left his/her domicile or residence (hereinafter referred to as "absentee") did not appoint an administrator of his/her property (hereinafter in this Section referred to simply as "administrator"), the family court may, at the request of any interested person or a public prosecutor, issue an order for necessary actions for the administration of such property. The same shall apply in cases the authority of the administrator ceases to exist during the absence of the absentee.
(2) If, after the issuance of the order pursuant to the provision of the preceding paragraph, the absentee appoints an administrator, the family court must rescind the order at the request of his/her administrator, any interested person, or a public prosecutor.

(Replacement of Administrator)
Article 26  In cases an absentee appoints an administrator, and if it is not clear whether such absentee is dead or alive, the family court may replace such administrator with another at the request of any interested person or a public prosecutor.

(Duties of Administrator)
Article 27  (1) An administrator who is appointed by the family court pursuant to the provision of the preceding two Articles must prepare a list of the property he/she is to administer. In such case, the expenses incurred shall be disbursed from the property of the absentee.
(2) In cases it is not clear whether an absentee is dead or alive, if so requested by any interested person or a public prosecutor, the family court may also order the administrator appointed by the absentee to prepare the list set forth in the preceding paragraph.
(3) In addition to provisions of the preceding two paragraphs, the family court may issue an order to the administrator to effect any action which the court may find to be necessary for the preservation of the property of the absentee.

(Authority of Administrator)
Article 28  If an administrator needs to perform any act beyond the authority set forth in Article 103, he/she may perform such act by obtaining the permission of the family court. The same shall likewise apply if the administrator needs to perform any act beyond the authority stipulated by the absentee in cases it is not clear whether the absentee is dead or alive.

(Provision of Security by and Remuneration for Administrator)
Article 29  (1) The family court may require an administrator to provide reasonable security with respect to the administration and return of the property.
(2) The family court may grant reasonable remuneration to the administrator from the property of the absentee with due regard to the relationship between the administrator and absentee and other circumstances.

(Adjudication of Disappearance)
Article 30  (1) If it is not clear whether the absentee is dead or alive for 7 years, the family court may make the adjudication of disappearance at the request of any interested person.
(2) The procedure of the preceding paragraph shall likewise apply with respect to any person who was engaged in any war zone, was aboard any vessel which later sank, or was otherwise exposed to any danger which could be the cause of death, if it is not clear whether such person is dead or alive for one year after the end of the war, after the sinking of the vessel, or after the termination of such other danger, as the case may be.

(Effect of Adjudication of Disappearance)
Article 31  Any person who has become the subject of the adjudication of disappearance pursuant to the provision of paragraph (1) of the preceding Article is deemed to have died upon elapse of the period set forth in such paragraph, and a person who is the subject of the adjudication of disappearance pursuant to the provision of paragraph (2) of the same Article is deemed to have died upon the termination of such danger.

(Rescission of Adjudication of Disappearance)
Article 32  (1) If there is any proof that an absentee is alive, or that he/she died at a time differing from that provided in the preceding Article, the family court must, at the request of the absentee himself/herself or any interested person, rescind the adjudication of disappearance. In such case, the rescission shall not affect the validity of any act which was performed without knowledge after the adjudication of disappearance but before the rescission thereof.


(2) Any person who acquired any property by the adjudication of disappearance shall lose its/his/her right upon rescission thereof; provided, however, that such person shall have the obligation to return such property only to the extent he/she is actually enriched.

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លោក ហ៊ុន សែ​ន​ ទទួល​​​ស្គាល់​​​​​​​ជាថ្មី​​​ថា​ លោកបា​ន​រំ​លោភ​ច្បាប់​​​មែន​​​

ខាងក្រោមជាអត្ថបទដែលដកស្រង់ចេញពីកាសែត Cambodia Daily
លោក ហ៊ុន សែ ទទួល​​​ស្គាល់​​​​​​​ជាថ្មី​​​ថា លោកបារំលោភច្បាប់​​​មែន​​​
ដោយ Neou Vannarin and Zsombor Peter - June 21, 2013


កាល​ពី​ថ្ងៃពុធលោកនាយក​រដ្ឋ​មន្ត្រី​​ ហ៊ុន សែ​ន ​​បា​ន​​សារភាព​​​ជា​សាធារណៈ​​​ជាថ្មី​​​ម្តងទៀត​​​​​​ថាលោក​​​ពិតជា​​​​បា​ន​រំ​លោភច្បាប់​​​មែន​​​នៅ​​ពេល​​​លោក​​​ជួ​យ​លោក​​ កឹម សុខា មេ​ដឹក​នាំ​​គ​ណ​បក្ស​​ប្រឆាំងឲ្យ​រួ​​ចផុត​ពី​ការ​​ចាប់​ខ្លួន​​ពាក់ព័ន្ធ​​​នឹង​​​​កា​រ​​រួ​មភេទ​​​ជាមួ​យ​​ក្មេង​ស្រី​​អា​យុ​​១៥​ឆ្នាំ​ម្នាក់។
លោក​ ហ៊ុន​​​ សែន​​​ បា​ន​​​ធ្វើការ​​​ចោទ​ប្រ​កាន់​​​ប្រធាន​ស្តី​ទី​​គ​ណ​បក្ស​​សង្គ្រោះ​​​ជាតិ​​​​​រូបនេះ​​​ជាលើក​​​​ដំបូ​ង​​​​កាល​ពី​សប្តា​ហ៍​មុន​ដោ​យ​​​បាន​​​អះ​​អា​ង​ថា លោក កឹម សុខា បា​ន​ឲ្យ​ប្រាក់​ចំ​នួន​​​​៥០០​ដុល្លារ​​ទៅ​ក្មេង​ស្រី​រូ​ប​នេះសម្រាប់​​​ការ​​​រួ​ម​ភេទ​​​ និង​​​ថា​ ខ្លួន​​​លោក​ផ្ទាល់​​បា​ន​រំ​លោភ​ច្បាប់​​​​ដោ​យសារ​​​​ការ​​​រារាំង​មិន​ឲ្យ​មា​ន​ការ​​ចាប់​ខ្លួន​​​លោក កឹម សុ​ខា​​​​​​ ជៀសវាង​​​​ការ​ចោទ​ប្រកាន់​​ថា​លោក​​​ជ្រៀត​ជ្រែក​​​ក្នុង​​​​រឿង​​​ផ្ទាល់​ខ្លួ​ន​​របស់​​​​គាត់​​​។
​​លោក កឹម សុខា បដិ​សេធ​ការ​​​អះ​អាង​​នេះ ​ហើយ​គណ​​បក្ស​​​របស់​លោក​​បា​ន​​ចាត់​ទុ​ក​​​​ការ​​​ចោទប្រកាន់​​​នេះ​​​ថា​​​ជា​រឿង​នយោ​​​បា​យ​​​​ដែល​​​​ត្រូវបាន​​​ប្រឌិត​​​ឡើង​​​ក្នុង​​​បំណង​​​បង្ខូច​​​កេរ្តិ៍​​​ឈ្មោះ​​​​​​​​​របស់​​​លោក​​​ កឹម​​​ សុខា​​​ មុន​កា​រ​​បោះ​ឆ្នោត​​ជ្រើស​​​តាំ​ង​​តំ​ណា​ង​រាស្ត្រ​នៅ​ខែ​ក្រោ​យ​នេះ​។

ក្រុម​​​ជំនាញ​​​​​​​​ការ​​​​ច្បាប់​​បា​ន​​​លើកឡើង​​​​ថា ការ​សារភាព​​​ជា​សាធារណៈ​របស់​លោក ហ៊ុន សែនគួរ​​​តែ​​​ឈានដល់​​​ការ​​​​​​​​​ស៊ើប​​អង្កេត​​​​​ពី​សំណាក់​​​នគរបាល​ថា ​តើ​លោក​នាយក​​រដ្ឋ​មន្ត្រី​​បា​ន​រំលោភ​ច្បាប់​មែនឬ​​យ៉ាងណា​​​​។
លោក​ ហ៊ុន​​​ សែន​​​ បា​ន​ថ្លែង​​​​អំឡុង​​​ពិធី​​សម្ពោធ​​វិទ្យា​ល័យ​​មួ​យ​​​​នៅ​​​ក្នុង​ខេត្ត​កណ្តាល​កាលពី​ម្សិល​មិញ​​​​ថា ​អ្នក​ខ្លះ​​និ​យា​យ​ថា ​ខ្ញុំ​រំលោភ​ច្បាប់​។ មែន​​​ វា​​ជាការ​ពិត​។ ខ្ញុំ​ពិត​ជា​បា​ន​និយាយ​ថា ខ្ញុំ​រំលោភ​ច្បាប់​​​មែន​​​ ព្រោះ​ខ្ញុំ​​បា​ន​​​ឃាត់​​​នគរ​បាល​មិន​ឲ្យចាប់​ខ្លួន​លោក​ឯង [លោក កឹម សុខា]មុនពេល​​​​​​​លោក​ឯង​រួម​​ភេទ​​​ជា​មួ​យ​នាង​។​​​ ថ្ងៃ​នេះ ពួ​ក​គេ​ចុះផ្សាយ​ថា ខ្ញុំ​រំ​លោភ​ច្បាប់។ ខ្ញុំ​​ទទួល​ស្គាល់​ថា ខ្ញុំ​រំលោភ​ច្បាប់​មែ​ន​
លោក ហ៊ុន សែ​ន បា​ន​និ​យា​យ​ការ​​ពារ​ការ​​​សម្រេចចិត្ត​​​​​​បែប​នេះ​​​ដោយ​​​អះអាង​​​ថា ​​​វា​​​ជា​​​ជម្រើស​​​ប្រសើរ​​​បំផុត​​​​​សម្រាប់​​​​ភាគី​​​ពាក់​​ព័ន្ធ​​ទាំ​ង​​​អស់។លោកបា​ន​មាន​​​ប្រសាសន៍ថា​ខ្ញុំបា​ន​​ប្រាប់​​​​ពួ​ក​គេ​[នគរបាល]កុំ​​​​​ឲ្យ​​​ធ្វើ​​​អ៊ីចឹង​​​​[ចាប់​ខ្លួ​ន​លោក កឹម សុខា] គ្រាន់​តែ​បំ​ភ័យ​​​ឲ្យ​​​​គាត់​​​​​រត់​​​ទៅ​​​បា​នហើយ​
លោក​នាយករដ្ឋមន្ត្រី​បា​ន​បន្ត​ថា ​ពេល​គាត់​រត់​​​បាត់​​​យើង​មិនបាច់​​ចាប់​ខ្លួន​​គាត់​ទេ។ នេះ​មិនមែ​ន​​​​ជា​​​រឿង​​​ឈ្នះ​ៗ​ទេ វា​ជា​​​​រឿង​​​ស្មើ​​​​គ្នា​​​។ក្មេង​ស្រី​​នោះ​​​​​មិ​ន​​​បាន​​​​បាត់​បង់​​ព្រហ្ម​​ចារីយ៍​​ទេ ​មិន​ចាំ​បាច់​​​​​ឲ្យ​​​មាន​បញ្ហា​​ចោទ​ប្រកាន់​គ្នា​​​ទេ​ ហើយ​គាត់​​​មិន​ត្រូ​វ​​បាន​​​ដាក់​ទោសឡើយ​​​​​​
ទោះ​ជា​​​លោក ហ៊ុន សែន ​​​បាន​​​សារភាព​​​ជា​សាធា​រណៈ​​​​អំពី​​​​កំ​ហុស​ឆ្គង​​​​​នេះ​​​ហើយ​​​​​​ក៏​ដោយក៏​មន្ត្រី​នគរបាល​​​​ជាន់​ខ្ពស់​និង​​​មន្ត្រី​​​តុលាការ​​​បា​ន​បដិ​សេធ​​​​មិន​និយា​យ​​ថា តើ​​នឹង​​​មាន​​​ការ​​​ស៊ើប​អង្កេត​កា​រ​អះ​​​អា​ង​​របស់​លោក​នា​​យក​រដ្ឋ​មន្ត្រី​​​​ឬ​អត់​​​​​​ទេ​​​​។
លោក គៀត ច័ន្ទថា​រិទ្ធ ​​អ្ននក​នាំ​​ពាក្យ​​​​នគរ​បាល​ជាតិ​បា​ន​មាន​​ប្រ​សាសន៍​ថារឿង​នេះ​ហួស​​ពី​សមត្ថកិច្ច​​​របស់​ខ្ញុំ​​​ហើយ​​​​​
លោក ច័ន្ទថា​រិទ្ធ ​​ក៏​​បា​ន​លើក​ឡើង​ផង​​ដែរ​​​ថាលោក​មិន​អាច​​ធ្វើ​​​អត្ថា​​ធិ​ប្បាយ​​​បាន​​ទេ ព្រោះ​លោក​មិន​បា​ន​ឮ​​​ការ​​​សារភាព​​​របស់​លោក​នា​យក​រដ្ឋ​មន្ត្រី​ដែល​​ត្រូ​វ​បា​ន​ចាក់​ផ្សាយ​​តា​ម​​វិទ្យុ​​ជាតិ​​​​​ទាំង​​​កា​ល​​ពី​សប្តាហ៍​មុន​ និង​ថ្ងៃ​​​ម្សិល​មិញ​។
លោក​​​បាន​​​មាន​​​ប្រសាសន៍​​​ថា​​​ចាំ​ខ្ញុំ​​មើល​​​កម្មវិធី​​ទូរទស្ស​​ន៍​​​​​សិន​ រួច​​​ទើប​​​​​​ខ្ញុំ​​អាច​​ឆ្លើយ​​​​បាន​​​ថា​​​ ​​​​តើ​​​នគរ​បាល​ជាតិ​​​​អាច​​​ធ្វើ​​​អ្វី​​​បាន​​​ខ្លះ​​​។ ពេល​នេះ ខ្ញុំ​មិន​ដឹង​​​​​ឆ្លើយ​​​ថា​​​ម៉េច​​​ទេ​
​​ឧត្តម​សេនីយ៍ត្រី ខេង ទី​តូ ​​អ្នក​នាំ​​ពាក្យ​​កង​​រាជ​អា​វុធ​​​​ហត្ថ​​​លើ​ផ្ទៃប្រទេស​​​​​ បា​ន​លើក​ឡើង​​​​ថា រាល់​​​កា​រ​​ស៊ើប​អង្កេត​ចាំ​បាច់​ត្រូ​វ​មា​ន​​​​​​​ដីកា​​​​​ពី​​​តុ​លាការ។​លោក​ថ្លែង​​ថាយើង​មិន​ទាន់​​បា​ន​ទទួល​​លិខិត​ផ្លូវ​ការ​​​ណាមួ​យ​​​ពី​រដ្ឋា​ភិ​បាល​ឬ​តុ​លាការ​​​​​ដើម្បី​​​ចាត់​​​វិធានការ​​​ទេ​
លោក កោ វណ្ឌី អនុប្រធា​ន​សាលា​​ដំ​បូ​ង​​​រាជ​ធា​​នី​ភ្នំ​ពេញ​​ បា​ន​អះអាង​​​ថា លោក​មិន​សូវ​​​ដឹង​​រឿង​នេះ​​​ទេ ហើយ​​​​បា​ន​បដិសេធ​មិន​ធ្វើ​​អត្ថាធិ​ប្បាយ​​​​ឡើយ​​​។
លោក​​​ សុក​ សំ​​អឿន ជា​​​មេធាវី​​​​​និង​​​ជា​​​​នាយក​​​ប្រតិបត្តិ​​​​​​​​​នៃ​​​ក្រុម​អ្នក​ច្បាប់​ការ​​ពារ​សិទ្ធិ​កម្ពុជា ដែល​ជា​អង្គការ​​​​​​​​ជំ​នួ​យ​ផ្នែក​ច្បាប់​​ បា​ន​មា​ន​​ប្រ​សាស​ន៍​ថា នគរបា​ល​ត្រូ​វ​​​ស៊ើប​អង្កេត​​​​​​​ពី​​​លោក​​​នាយក​​រដ្ឋ​មន្ត្រី​ ប្រសិន​បើ​​​ពួ​ក​គេជឿ​ថា ពិតជា​​​មាន​​​បទ​ល្មើស​​​នោះមែន​​​​។
លោក​បា​នមាន​​​ប្រសាសន៍​​​ថាច្បាប់​ចែ​ង​​ថា ប្រសិ​ន​បើ​​​នគរបាល​ជឿថា វាជា​បទ​ល្មើស​នគរបាល​​​​អាច​ចាត់​វិធាន​ការ​​​បាន​​​​ពួ​ក​គេ​ត្រូ​វ​​​​​តែ​​​ធ្វើ​​​។​ វាជា​​ភារ​កិច្ច​​របស់​​ពួ​ក​គេ​ ប្រ​សិន​បើ​​ពួ​ក​គេ​​ជឿថា​​​​បទ​ល្មើស​បា​ន​កើត​ឡើង​​​មែន​​​​
ប៉ុន្តែ​​​​ លោក​បា​ន​​បន្ថែម​​ថា ការ​សារភាព​​​អំពី​​​​​បទ​ល្មើស​​​ណា​​​​មួ​យ ​គឺ​​​មិន​​​ដូច​​​ជា​ភ័ស្តុតា​ង​ទេ​​​ដោយ​​​​បា​ន​បញ្ជាក់​ថា ​នគរបាល​​​​មា​ន​​សិទ្ធិ​​​​សម្រេច​ខ្លះ​​​ដែរ​​​។

លោក​បា​ន​មា​ន​ប្រ​សាសន៍​ថាបញ្ហា​គឺ​​​មិន​​​នៅ​​​ត្រង់​ថា ទទួល​ស្គាល់​​​ឬ​​​​មិន​​​ទទួល​ស្គាល់​​​​​ឡើយ​​​។នគរបាល​ត្រូ​វ​​ធ្វើ​ការ​ស៊ើប​អង្កេត​​​​​ថា ​​តើ​​វា​​ជា​បទល្មើស​​ពិត​​​ប្រាកដ​​​​​​ឬ​​​មិន​មែន​​​​​ ​​អភ័យ​ឯក​សិទ្ធិ​ផ្លូ​វ​ច្បាប់​​​​​របស់​​​​លោក​នាយក​​រដ្ឋ​មន្ត្រី​​ក្នុងនាម​​​ជា​​​សមាជិ​ក​សភា​​​​​​​​​តាមរយៈ​​​ការ​​​បោះឆ្នោត​​​ក៏​ជា​​​បញ្ហា​មួយ​​​​ដែរ​​​។

លោក សុក សំ​អឿន បា​ន​បញ្ជាក់​​​ថា មុន​នឹង​​​​​​​អាច​​​​ស៊ើប​អង្កេត​​​​​ពី​​​លោក​នាយក​​រដ្ឋ​មន្ត្រី ​ឬ​សូម្បី​​​​​​តែ​​​ទាម​​ទារ​ឲ្យ​លោក​ចូលខ្លួន​​​មក​​​បំភ្លឺ​​​​​​​​​តាម​​​​​ដី​កា​កោះ​​របស់​តុ​លាការ​​​បាន​​​​ ​រដ្ឋ​សភា​ត្រូ​វ​​ដក​​អភ័​យ​ឯក​សិទ្ធិ​​សភា​​​​របស់​លោ​ក​​​​ជា​​​មុន​​​សិន​​​។

លោក សុក សំ​អឿន ​​បា​ន​​សង្កត់​​​ធ្ងន់​​​ថា នគរ​​បា​ល​​​អាចចាត់​វិធានការ​​​លើ​​​​សមាជិ​ក​សភា​ណា​ម្នាក់​​​​ទោះជា​​​មា​ន​​​អ​ភ័យឯក​សិទ្ធិ​បាន​​​ប្រសិន​​​​​បើ​​​បទ​ល្មើស​​​ដូច​ត្រូ​វ​បា​ន​ចោទ​​​ប្រកាន់​​​​នោះ ធ្ងន់​​​ ឬ​​ជាក់ស្តែង​ ប៉ុន្តែ​​​លោក​មិន​ប្រាកដ​​​ថា​​​ តើ​​​ការ​​​​សារភាព​​​​​អំពី​​​ការ​​​ប្រព្រឹត្ត​​​ខុស​​​របស់​លោក​ហ៊ុនសែនគឺ​​​ល្មម​​​នឹង​​​ឲ្យ​​​នគរបាល​​​ចាត់វិធានការ​​បាន​​​ឬ​​​យ៉ាងណា​​​ទេ​​​។

តាម​ច្បាប់​ អ្នក​​មាន​​​ទោស​​​​​​​​​​​ព្រហ្មទណ្ឌ​​​មិន​​អាច​​ឈរ​​​ឈ្មោះ​​​បោះឆ្នោត​​​​​​​ក្នុង​​ប្រទេស​កម្ពុជា​​​បា​ន​ទេ​។​នេះ​​​ជា​អ្វី​​ដែល​បា​ន​កើតឡើង​​ចំ​ពោះ​​លោក សម រង្ស៊ី ​​ប្រធាន​​គណ​បក្ស​​សង្គ្រោះ​​ជាតិ​ដែល​ប្រឈ​មនឹង​​ទោស​​​ជាប់​​ពន្ធនា​គារ​​រយៈពេល​១១ឆ្នាំ​ តាម​​បទ​​​ចោទ​​ប្រកាន់​​​​ ដែល​​​​រួមមាន​​​​​​ទាំង​​​បទ​បរិហារកេរ្តិ៍​​​និង​​​បទ​បំផ្លិច​​​បំផ្លាញ​ទ្រព្យ​សម្បត្តិ​សាធារ​​ណៈ​​​ផងដែរ​​​​។
លោក​​​ យ៉េង វី​រៈ ប្រធាន​​មជ្ឈមណ្ឌល​អប់​រំ​​​​​ច្បាប់​​សម្រាប់​សហ​គមន៍​ ដែល​​ជាអង្គការ​ក្រៅ​​រដ្ឋា​ភិ​បាល​​​​​​ខាង​​​ផ្តល់​​​ជំនួ​យ​ផ្នែក​ច្បាប់​​ដែរ​​​នោះ​​​ ​​​លើក​ឡើង​ថាការ​​សារ​ភាព​​​ជា​​សាធារ​​ណៈ​​​របស់​​លោក​នាយក​រដ្ឋ​មន្ត្រី​​​គួរ​​​ត្រូវ​​​បាន​​​​ស៊ើប​អង្កេត​​​​។
លោក​​បន្ថែម​​ថាគួរតែ​​អាច​ទៅរួច​​​ ប៉ុន្តែ​​​​ធាតុពិត​​​ជាក់ស្តែង​​​យ៉ាងណា​​​ខ្ញុំ​មិន​ដឹង​​​ទេ​ដោយ​​​លោក​បា​ន​ធ្វើ​​​ការ​​​កត់សម្គាល់​​​​​ពី​​​​​​​​​គំរូ​​​គួរ​​​ឲ្យ​​​ប្រយ័ត្ន​​​​​​​​​​របស់​​​លោកស្រី មូរ សុខហួរ សមា​​ជិ​ក​​សភា​គណ​បក្ស​ប្រ​ឆាំ​ង​ 

នៅ​ពេល​លោក​ស្រី ​​​មូរ​​​ សុខហួរ ប៉ុនប៉ង​​​​​ប្តឹង​​លោក​នា​​យក​រដ្ឋ​មន្ត្រី​​ក្នុង​ឆ្នាំ​​២០០៩ ពី​បទ​​បរិហារកេរ្តិ៍​ សាលា​ដំ​បូ​ង​​រាជ​ធា​នី​ភ្នំ​ពេញ​​បា​ន​ច្រាន​ចោល​​​ពាក្យ​​​បណ្តឹង​​​​នេះ​ដោ​យ​លើក​​​ហេតុផល​​​​​ថា ខ្វះ​​ភ័ស្តុ​តាង​ ប៉ុន្តែ​​​បែរជា​​​បា​ន​ទទួល​​យក​​​ពាក្យ​​​បណ្តឹង​បក​​​វិញ​​​របស់​លោក ហ៊ុន សែ​ន ​​​ដែល​​​បាន​​​ប្តឹង​លោក​ស្រី​​ជា​ការ​ឆ្លើយតប​​​ចំពោះ​​​ការ​​​​ប្តឹង​លោក​​​​ពីដំបូង​​​។
ក្រោយ​មក រដ្ឋ​សភា​បា​ន​ដក​អភ័យ​ឯក​សិទ្ធិ​​​​​របស់លោក​ស្រី​ មូរ សុខហួរ ដើម្បី​ផ្តល់​​​លទ្ធ​ភាព​​​​​ឲ្យ​​តុ​លា​ការ​ស៊ើប​អង្កេត​ វិនិច្ឆ័យ​ទោស និង​ផ្តន្ទា​​​ទោស​លោកស្រី​ពី​បទ​​បរិហារកេរ្តិ៍លោក​នាយក​រដ្ឋមន្ត្រី៕

ប្រែសម្រួលដោយ ចេវ ប៊ុននី

Thursday, June 20, 2013

Illegal letter issued by Ratanakiri provincial hall to ban people to attend NGOs' events within its province

Geography of Ratanakiri province 
Ratanakiri province located in the remote northeast. It borders the provinces of Mondulkiri to the south and Stung Treng to the west and the countries of Laos and Vietnam to the north and east, respectively. The province extends from the mountains of the Annamite Range in the north, across a hilly plateau between the Tonle Sesan and Tonle Srepok rivers, to tropical deciduous forests in the south. In recent years, logging and mining have scarred Ratanakiri's environment, long known for its beauty.


For over a millennium, Ratanakiri has been occupied by the highland Khmer Loeu people, who are a minority elsewhere in Cambodia. During the region's early history, its Khmer Loeu inhabitants were exploited as slaves by neighboring empires. The slave trade economy ended during the French colonial era, but a harsh Khmerization campaign after Cambodia's independence again threatened Khmer Loeu ways of life. The Khmer Rouge built its headquarters in the province in the 1960s, and bombing during the Vietnam War devastated the region. Today, rapid development in the province is altering traditional ways of life.


The Legal Issue within this province 
Regarding human rights aspect within this province, it’s recorded that most cases are related to land issues and human rights defenders were faced many problem with local authority. Last few years, ADHOC and CCHR staff was charged on incitement by the powerful persons.

Recently, on June 13, 2013 Ratanakiri provincial hall issued a letter (it’s not named the tile of letter) to inform the chairman and president of NGOs locates within their provincial boundary that the provincial hall WILL NOT allow to invite any level of local authorities from town, district, commune, village and normal villagers to attend any organizations’ event on WORKSHOP, MEETING AND STUDY TOUR because in order for local authority have enough times to manage their jobs and let people to get opportunities to use their political rights. This letter banned people NGOs to conduct any event from June 27, 2013 to July 26, 2013 because it’s time for election campaign. The letter doesn't provide any legal reference. It’s indicated the National Election Committee’s calendar which determine the time for all political parties to conduct election campaign from June 27, 2013 to July 26, 2013.

This letter is considered as unconstitutional because it’s violated article 41 “Khmer citizens shall have freedom of expression, press, publication and assembly. No one shall exercise this right to infringe upon the rights of others, to effect the good traditions of the society, to violate public law and order and national security. Is time to ban people’s rights for election campaign? No, the election time is a great time for people to understand all matters happen in their country therefore they are easy to decide in which political party they should vote for. In order to reach people’s feeling, NGOs can organize any meeting to coach them on how to vote for. NGOs can explain people are not to fear someone threats them. Why Ratanakiri provincial hall issue to ban this activities?

Do authorities understand the rights to participate in political party? Do people have rights to attend any events in the country?

We don’t accuse Ratanakiri provincial official who lack capacity to understand the concept of political rights or else but they should at least before issuing the letter, reading the existing regulations and laws whether they do rights or wrong.

The below is the legal analysis regarding this letter:

Local Instrument:
Cambodian Constitution: Article 31 of Cambodian Constitution stipulates that the Kingdom of Cambodia shall recognize and respect human rights as stipulated in the United Nations Charter, the Universal Declaration of Human rights, the covenants and conventions related to human rights, and women's and children's rights.

Khmer citizens shall have freedom of assembly[1] and have the right to establish associations and political parties... Khmer citizens may take part in mass organizations for mutual benefit to protect national achievement and social order[2].

As it’s mentioned above, the constitution doesn't ban any activities of NGOs or people to participate in order to develop the country. Article 35 states clearly “Khmer citizens of either sex shall have the right to participate actively in the political, economic, social and cultural life of the nation. Any suggestions from the people shall be given full consideration by the grant of the State.”.

Election Law in 1997: it doesn’t have any article to ban people to attend NGOs’ events during the election campaign. 

In accordance with this provision, the 1993 Constitution of Kingdom of Cambodia includes a declaration of fundamental rights in Chapter III: The rights and obligation of Citizens of Cambodia, Certain other provisions of the Constitution are also relevant to the protection of human rights[3].

International instruments:
Cambodia ratified and became members of many international legal instruments. Those are included Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR), ILO Declaration on Fundamental Principles; Rights at Work and United Nations Millennium Declaration…..

UDHR[4] was adopted by the United Nations General Assembly in 1948 after the end of the Second World War as a common standard of achievement for all peoples and all nations. Apart from core civil society rights to express associate and assemble, the UDHR assures fundamental human rights to all people- both civil and political as well as Economic, Social, and Cultural. The UDHR is the source from which various human rights treaties and instruments have been developed. Although conceived as a Declaration as opposed to a treaty, today, the UDHR is widely regarded as a part of international customary law.
Right to form and join association: Everyone has the right to freedom of peaceful assembly and association. No one may be compelled to belong to an association[5]. Everyone has the right to form and to join trade unions for the protection of his interests[6].

ICCPR[7] is the key international treaty enshrining civil and political rights. It addresses the State’s traditional responsibilities for administering justice and maintaining the rule of law. 
Article 19  (Freedom of Expression):
1. Everyone shall have the right to hold opinions without interference.
2. Everyone shall have the right to freedom of expression; this right shall include freedom to seek, receive and impart information and ideas of all kinds, regardless of frontiers, either orally, in writing or in print, in the form of art, or through any other media of his choice.
Article 22 (Freedom of Assembly):
The right of peaceful assembly shall be recognized. No restrictions may be placed on the exercise of this right other than those imposed in conformity with the law and which are necessary in a democratic society in the interests of national security or public safety, public order (order public), the protection of public health or morals or the protection of the rights and freedoms of others.

Article 22 (Freedom of Association):
1. Everyone shall have the right to freedom of association with others, including the right to form and join trade unions for the protection of his interests.
2. No restrictions may be placed on the exercise of this right other than those which are prescribed by law and which are necessary in a democratic society in the interests of national security or public safety, public order (ordre public), the protection of public health or morals or the protection of the rights and freedoms of others. This article shall not prevent the imposition of lawful restrictions on members of the armed forces and of the police in their exercise of this right.
Article 25 (Citizen Participation): Every citizen shall have the right and the opportunity, without any of the distinctions mentioned in article 2 and without unreasonable restrictions:

ILO Declaration on Fundamental Principles and Rights at Work[8]: The ILO Declaration commits Member States to respect and promote principles and rights in four categories, whether or not they have ratified the relevant Conventions. These categories are: freedom of association and the effective recognition of the right to collective bargaining, the elimination of forced or compulsory labor, the abolition of child labor, and the elimination of discrimination in respect of employment and occupation.

Article 2 (Freedom of Association):  [The International Labor Conference] Declares that all Members, even if they have not ratified the Conventions in question, have an obligation arising from the very fact of membership in the Organization to respect, to promote and to realize, in good faith and in accordance with the Constitution, the principles concerning the fundamental rights which are the subject of those Conventions, namely:
(a) freedom of association and the effective recognition of the right to collective bargaining;
(b) the elimination of all forms of forced or compulsory labor;
 (c) the effective abolition of child labor; and
(d) the elimination of discrimination in respect of employment and occupation.

Conclusion:
This letter is illegal therefore the NGOs or interesting people should file complaint to court to nullify it because it might lead Ratanakiri province uses its rights beyond the law said.
Please read the letter as below:










[1] Article 41, Cambodian Constitution.
[2] Article 42, Cambodian Constitution.
[3] OHCHR, Cambodia country office, (2008), Cambodian Human Rights Law, p. IV
[4]See Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights, United Nations Staff College Project, Human Rights: A basic handbook for UN staff, United Nations, 2000, p.11.
Available at http://www.unhchr.ch/html/menu6/handbook.pdf
[5] Article 19, UDHR.
[6] Article 23-4, UDHR.
[7] http://www2.ohchr.org/english/law/ccpr.htm
[8]International Labor Organization: www.ilo.org
•Standards and Fundamental Principles and Rights at Work: http://www.ilo.org/public/english/standards/ index.htm


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