Monday, February 28, 2011

Asian NGOs condemn defamation suit on activist


Sam Chankea - Photo courtesy of ki-media.blogspot.com
27 February 2011
ALIRAN
More than two dozen Asian civil society groups have condemned the conviction of Sam Chankea, a Cambodian human rights defender, for the exercise of his right to freedom of expression.

We, the undersigned human rights NGOs, human rights defenders and women human rights defenders of Asia, deeply regret the conviction of Mr. Sam Chankea, provincial coordinator of the Cambodian Human Rights and Development Association (ADHOC).

Mr. Chankea is a human rights defender active in land rights issues in Kampong Chhnang province. He was charged with defamation under Article 305 of the New Penal Code by the KDC International Company, a development company allegedly owned by Lauk Chumteav Chea Kheng, the wife of the Minister of Mining and Energy in Cambodia. On 25 January 2011, the Kg. Chhnang Provincial Court ruled against Mr. Sam Chankea and ordered him to pay a 1 million Riel fine and an additional 3 million Riel in compensation. If he does not pay the 4 million Riel (approximately US$1,000), he faces imprisonment.

Mr. Sam Chankea was charged for defamation by the KDC International Company because of a statement he made during a radio interview on Radio Free Asia (RFA) on 26 December 2009. In this interview he expressed his opinion on an ongoing land case in Kampong Chhnang between 108 families and the KDC International Company. There is a pending case between the families of Kampong Chhang and the KDC International Company, but still, the KDC International Company sent in its machinery to undertake land levelling. Mr. Sam Chankea considered the activity of land levelling by the KDC Company as an unlawful act. He stated that “what the company has done is an act of violation since the court has yet to rule on the merits of the case. Therefore the company should suspend the activity and await the ruling on the merits of the case”.


Mr Sam Chankea was well within his rights as a human rights defender to speak publicly on his opinion on a human rights issue. Under Article 6(b) of the UN Declaration on Human Rights Defenders, he has the right to freely impart his views on all human rights and fundamental freedoms. Furthermore, Cambodia is a State party to the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR), and the right to freedom of expression is protected under Article 19(2) of the Covenant. It is expressly stated there that “everyone shall have the right to freedom of expression”. The right to freedom of expression is also protected under Article 41 of the Constitution of Cambodia, which states that “Khmer citizens shall have freedom of expression, press, publication, and assembly”. This right, however, can be subject to certain limitations, such as those provided by law and those that are necessary “for the protection of national security or of public order”.

Article 305 of the New Penal Code is meant to be a limitation of this right. However, calls have been made by several human rights groups for the review of this defamation law on the grounds that it is not a lawful derogation of the right to freedom of expression. A close inspection of Article 305 of the Penal Code reveals provisions that are too broad and ambiguous. This means that there would be great potential for the misuse and abuse of this law, which would lead towards an unlawful infringement of the very right itself. The UN Human Rights Committee, in its General Comment No. 10, explains that “when a State party imposes certain restrictions on the exercise of freedom of expression, these may not put in jeopardy the right itself”.

We, the undersigned human rights defenders and women human rights defenders, believe that the present case is an example of the abuse of the defamation law by a non-state actor. The statement of Mr Sam Chankea is a mere expression of opinion and a legitimate criticism of the acts of KDC International Company. A final verdict against Mr. Sam Chankea will have a chilling effect upon human rights defenders who work to expose abuses committed by businesses in Cambodia, especially those involved in land-grabbing and other acts in violation of the rights of Cambodian citizens. This case is a clear illustration of the defamation laws being used to silence dissenting and critical voices of human rights defenders.

We strongly urge the Appeal Court to promptly review the case of Mr. Sam Chankea in conformity with relevant international human rights standards, and therefore overturn the verdict issued by the Kg. Chhnang Provincial Court and acknowledge the fact that the defamation charges against Mr. Sam Chankea was clearly intended to hinder his work as a human rights defender.

We strongly urge the government of Cambodia to guarantee the protection of human rights defenders who face reprisals from state and non-state actors because of their exercise of the right to freedom of expression. We also call on the government to repeal Article 305 of the Penal Code which makes defamation a criminal offence and which has clearly been used largely to silence the voices of human rights defenders.

The following groups endorse this statement:

1. Alliance of Independent Journalists Indonesia (AJI), Indonesia
2. Asian Centre for Human Rights (ACHR)
3. Cambodian Human Rights and Development Association (ADHOC), Cambodia
4. Cambodian League for the Promotion and Defense of Human Right (LICADHO), Cambodia
5. Centre for Human Rights and Development (CHRD), Mongolia
6. Friends’ Association for Rural Reconstruction (FARR), India
7. Globe International, Mongolia
8. The Indonesian Human Rights Monitor (IMPARSIAL), Indonesia
9. Indonesia’s NGO Coalition for International Human Right Advocacy – Human Rights Working Group (HRWG), Indonesia
10. Indonesian Human Rights Committee for Social Justice (IHCS), Indonesia
11. INFORM Human Rights Documentation Centre (INFORM), Sri Lanka
12. Informal Sector Service Center (INSEC), Nepal
13. Judicial System Monitoring Programme (JSMP), Timor Leste
14. Korean House for International Solidarity (KHIS), South Korea
15. Law and Society Trust (LST), Sri Lanka
16. National Alliance of Women Human Rights Defenders (NAWHRD), Nepal
17. People’s Solidarity for Participatory Democracy (PSPD), South Korea
18. People’s Watch, India
19. Philippine Alliance of Human Rights Advocates (PAHRA), Philippines
20. Sudhanthra, India
21. Tanggol Kalikasan, Philippines
22. The Observatory (FIDH-OMCT)
23. Think Centre, Singapore
24. Women’s Rehabilitation Centre (WOREC), Nepal
25. World Forum for Democratization in Asia (WFDA)



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Saturday, February 26, 2011

Competition Law in Cambodia

Cambodia is taking initial steps towards economic integration into ASEAN and membership in the international economic community.  These policies entail creating private markets at home and seeking membership in the World Trade Organization (WTO) abroad.  Despite efforts at creating a market economy, Cambodia has no formal competition law.  This is not surprising.  Cambodian efforts must first focus on the basic building blocks of the commercial infrastructure B property law, contract law, a civil code, securities regulation, and corporate law.  Ironically, while competition law is useful in policing behavior in established markets, it is of relatively little use in constructing markets in the first instance.  At initial stages of development, poorly designed state policies and corrupt public officials are a greater threat to free markets than are private cartels and price fixing agreements.  To create robust private markets it is therefore necessary to first lay the foundation of good public governance. 
This chapter examines competition law and policy in Cambodia.  Section one reviews Cambodian competition law and the relevance of competition policy in economic development.  Section two highlights specific limitations of competition law in fostering Cambodia=s development.  Competition law cannot create markets.  Competition law cannot create an independent judiciary.  Competition law cannot constrain government actors who fail to act in the public interest.   Finally, section three outlines policies Cambodia could follow that would help foster the growth of the private sector and the creation of economic markets.  These measures include making the constitutional systems of checks and balances a reality, passing an administrative procedures act, fighting public corruption, continuing efforts at liberalizing international trade, and introducing competitive bidding into public contracting. 
I           Competition Law in Cambodia:  Like a Fish Needs a Bicycl
Cambodia still faces enormous social, economic and political challenges in its efforts at national reconstruction.  Given the breadth and enormity of these obstacles, one may legitimately ask, at this point in time at least, why bother with competition or antitrust law?  In the 1970s, feminist Gloria Steinem provocatively declared that a woman needs a man like a fish needs a bicycle Can the same be said about Cambodia and competition law?  A skeptical attitude toward competition law can be extended to developing countries generally.  The necessity of antitrust law in these settings is not obvious.  
If you want know more this document, please link here

តើត្រូវធ្វើដូចម្តេចបើតុលាការចេញសាលក្រសំរេចឱ្យជនជាប់ចោទ រួចផុតពីបទចោទប្រកាន់ ?


លោក លោកស្រី មានអាជីពជាអ្នកច្បាប់ ពិតយល់ថាមិនមែន ជាបញ្ហា ស្មុកស្មាញទេ ។ តែបើលោក លោកស្រី ពុំមែនជាអ្នកច្បាប់វិញនោះ ហើយបានជួប ក្នុងករណីនេះ ក្នុងនាមខ្លួនជាដើមចោទ ឫដើមបណ្តឹងរដ្ឋប្បវេណី នឹងយល់ថាជាបញ្ហា មួយ ដ៏ស្មុកស្មាញចំពោះរឿងក្តីរបស់ខ្លួន ​ព្រមទាំងបន្លឺវាចារ្យថា ‹ អយុត្តិធម៌ ណាស់› នៅ ពេលដែលតុលាការបានចេញសាលក្រម​​​ ឫសាល ដីកាសំរេចឱ្យជនជាប់ចោទរួចផុតពីបទ ចោទប្រកាន់ ។ ហើយបានសួរខ្លួនឯងថា ហេតុអ្វីបានជា តុលាការធ្វើការសំរេចបែបនេះ? ​tតើអាចទាមទារសំណងរដ្ឋប្បវេណីយ៉ាងម៉េចនឹងកើត ? បើជន ប្រព្រឹត្តបទល្មើសគ្មានទោស ​នោះ ! ។
ដើម្បីមានមូលដ្ឋានក្នុងការត្រេះរិះពិចារណាតាមផ្លូវច្បាប់ ខ្ញុំសូមលើកនូវ អង្គហេតុមួយដែលបាន កើតមានឡើងនៅខេត្តបាត់ដំបង ។ តែខ្ញុំមិនសរសេរឈ្មោះ ជន​ជាប់​ចោទ ឫឈ្មោះដើមបណ្តឹង រដ្ឋប្បវេណីពេញលិញទេ ដូចដែលមានដំណើររឿងដូច​តទៅ៖ ‹ ក្រោយថ្ងៃរំដោះ៧មករា ឆ្នាំ១៩៩៧៩ ក្រុមគ្រួសារ អ្នកស្រី គអ បានសាង សង់ផ្ទះរស់នៅលើដីមួយកន្លែងដែលមានបង្គន់នៅចំហៀង ផ្ទះទំហំដីបង្គន់៣ម X​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​ ៤ម ស្ថិត នៅពីក្រោយផ្ទះរបស់លោក សម ។
នៅឆ្នាំ២០០៥អ្នកស្រី គអ បានធ្វើពាក្យទៅអាជ្ញាឃុំសុំសាងសង់បង្គន់ ជាថ្មី ដោយមូលហេតុបង្គន់ ចាស់មានសភាពទ្រុឌទ្រោមមិនអាចប្រើប្រាស់បន្តទៅទៀតបាន​។ នៅពេលនោះអាជ្ញាឃុំបានចុះមកពិនិត្យ ហើយក៏បានអនុញ្ញាតឱ្យអ្នកស្រី គអ ធ្វើការ​សាងសង់បង្គន់ជាថ្មី ។  ដំណើរការសាងសង់បាន៥០%ហើយ ស្រាប់តែលោក សម រួម ទាំងកូនចៅ របស់ខ្លួនមកតវ៉ាមិនឱ្យយសាងសង់ ។ ដោយអះអាងថា ដីកន្លែងបង្គន់នោះ ជាដីកម្មសិទ្ធិរបស់ខ្លួន ។ នៅពេលនោះក៏មានទំនាស់ទាស់ទែងគ្នាបានផ្ទុះឡើង ។ អាជ្ញា ធរឃុំ ក៏បានហាមឃាត់ដល់ ភាគីទាំងសងខាងមិនឱ្យប៉ះពាល់ដីបង្គន់ និងផ្អាក់សាង សង់ជាបណ្តោះអាសន្ន ដើម្បីរងចាំការដោះ ស្រាយរួចរាល់សិន ។ ស្ថិតក្នុងការហាមឃាត់ របស់អាជ្ញាធរឃុំ លោក សម បានធ្វើរបងព័ទ្ធជុំវិញដី បង្គន់ទាំងរំលោភបំពាន ។ អ្នកស្រី គអ បានប្តឹងទៅតុលាការ​។ ស្ថិតតំណាក់កាលចៅក្រស៊ើបសួរ បានចេញដីកាសំរេច ឱ្យ អ្នកស្រី គអ សាងសង់បង្គន់បន្តនៅកន្លែងដីទំនាស់នោះ ។ អ្នកស្រី គអ មិនទាន់បាន ធ្វើការសាងសង់តាមដីកាសំរេចរបស់តុលាការផង ស្រាប់តែនៅឆ្នាំ២០០៧ លោក សម បានបញ្ជាឱ្យកូនចៅវាយកំទិចសំណង់បង្គន់ ដែលសាងសង់បាន៥០%ចោលអស់ ហើយ ចាក់សាបបំបិទជិតកន្លែងបង្គន់នោះ ។ ក្នុងរឿងនេះលោក សម បានប្តឹងតបដោយអះ អាងថាដីបង្គន់ទំហំ៣មx៤ម ជាកម្មសិទ្ធិរបស់ខ្លួន គឺអ្នកស្រី គអ សុំប្រើប្រាស់បង្គន់របស់ ខ្លួន ជារាងរហូតមក ។
នៅពេលសវនាការព្រះរាជាអាជ្ញានៅតែរក្សាបទចោទប្រកាន់ លើជនជាប់ចោទឈ្មោះ សម និងគូកនពីបទធ្វើឱ្យខូចខាតទ្រព្យសម្បត្តិអ្នកដទៃ ។ ប៉ុន្តែលោកចៅ ក្រមបានសំរេចឱ្យរួចផុតពីបទ ចោទប្រកាន់​នៃបទល្មើសធ្វើឱ្យខូចខាតទ្រព្យអ្នកដទៃ។ ក្នុងករណីនេះ តើអ្នកស្រី​ គអ ត្រូវធ្វើដូចម្តេច ដើម្បីទាមទារសំណង់​នៃការ​​ខូចខាតនេះបាន ? ។ យោងតាមត្រា៣៧៥  នៃក្រមនីតិវិធីព្រហ្មទណ្ឌ បានបញ្ជាក់ថា​ ដើមបណ្តឹងរដ្ឋប្បវេណី ឬ ​អ្នក​ទទួលខុសត្រូវរដ្ឋប្បវេណី មានសិទ្ធិប្តឹងឧទ្ធរណ៍បាន ពាក់ពន្ធ័នឹងផលប្រយោជន៍ ផ្នែករដ្ឋប្បវេណីតែប៉ុណ្ណោះ​ ក្នុងរយះពេលមួយខែគិតពីថ្ងៃប្រកាស សាលក្រម នៃសាលក្រមចំពោះមុខ និងសាលក្រមចាត់ទុកថាចំពោះមុខ រយះពេលប្តឹងឧទ្ធរណ៍ផ្តើម គិតពី ពេលទទួលដំណឹងសាលក្រមនោះ​​ ​។  គឺពុំមានចែងអំពីសិទ្ធិរបស់ដើមបណ្តឹងរដ្ឋប្បវេណី
ក្នុងការធ្វើបណ្តឹងឧទ្ទរណ៍លើផ្នែកទោសទណ្ឌកម្មឡើយ ។
      ជាគោលការណ៍ក្នុងរឿងព្រហ្មទណ្ឌ ដើម្បីឱ្យជនជាប់ចោទទទួលបន្ទុក​សង ការខូចខាតនៃ ព្យសនកម្មដែលបានកើតឡើងនោះ ទាល់តែជនជាប់ចោទនោះត្រូវបាន តុលាការរកឃើញថាពិតជា មានពិរុទ្ធភាពក្នុងការប្រព្រឹត្តបទល្មើស និងផ្តន្ទាទោសជនជាប់ ចោទនោះតាមផ្លូវច្បាប់ ។ ប្រសិនបើជនជាប់ចោទត្រូវបានតុលាការសំរេច ឱ្យរួចផុតពីការ ចោទប្រកាន់​វិញនោះ តើជនជាប់ចោទនឹងមានហេតុផលអ្វីទទួលបន្ទុកសងសំណង ផ្នែក រដ្ឋប្បវេណី។
មធ្យោបាយដើម្បីឱ្យជនជាប់ចោទកេចមិនផុត ក្នុងការទទួលទោសទណ្ឌ កម្ម ដោយផ្អែកតាមក្រមនីតិវិធីព្រហ្មទណ្ឌគឺមានតែព្រះរាជាអាជ្ញា និងអគ្គព្រះរាជាអាជ្ញា អមសាលាឧទ្ទរណ៍ទេ ដែលមានសិទ្ធិធ្វើបណ្តឹងឧទ្ទរណ៍លើទោសទណ្ឌកម្ម បើខ្លួនយល់ ឃើញថា តុលាការបានសំរេចផ្តន្ទាទោសជនជាប់ចោទ ធ្ងន់ ឬស្រាល ឬមិនត្រិមត្រូវតាម ផ្លូវច្បាប់នោះ ។ ក្នុងរឿងព្រហ្មទណ្ឌព្រះរាជាអាជ្ញាដើរតួរសំខាន់ណាស់ ក្នុងនាមតំណាង​ឱ្យអំណាចនីតិប្រតិបត្តិ ការពារផលប្រយោជន៍សង្គម ​និងរបៀបរាបរយសណ្តាប់ធ្នាប់ សាធារណះ ។ ​ធ្វើការចោទប្រកាន់ពីបទល្មើសព្រហ្មទណ្ឌ និងសន្និដ្ឋានឱ្យតុលាការអនុវត្ត​ច្បាប់​។ យោងតាមមាត្រា៣៨១នៃក្រមនីតិវិធីព្រហ្មទណ្ឌព្រះរាជាអាជ្ញាមានសិទ្ធិធ្វើការប្តឹង ឧទ្ធរណ៍ក្នុងរយះពេលមួយខែដោយផ្តើមគិតពីពេលប្រកាសសាលក្រម​។​​​​បើព្រះរាជាអាជ្ញា ថ្លោះថ្លូយភ្លេចធ្វើប្តឹងឧទ្ធរណ៍ក្នុងរយះពេលនេះ គឺអគ្គព្រះរាជាអាជ្ញាអមសាលាឧទ្ធរណ៍ មានសិទ្ធិធ្វើប្តឹងឧទ្ធរណ៍ក្នុងរយះពេល៣ខែ ដោយផ្តើមគិតពីពេលប្រកាសសាលក្រម ដូច គ្នា​នឹងព្រះរាជអាជ្ញាដែរ ។ ប៉ុន្តែជាអកុសលព្រះរាជាអាជ្ញា​ និងអគ្គព្ររាជាអាជ្ញាអមសាលា ឧទ្ធរណ៍ ពុំបានប្តឹងឧទ្ធរណ៍នឹងសាលក្រមខាង​លើនេះឡើយ ។ មានតែអ្នកស្រី គអ ជាដើមបណ្តឹងរដ្ឋប្បវេណីបានប្តឹងឧទ្ធរណ៍នឹងសេចក្តីសំរេចនៃសាលក្រមទាំងមូល ហើយ សាលាឧទ្ធរណ៍ កំពុងចាត់ការសំណុំរឿងនេះ ។ បើយោងតាមមាត្រា៣៧៥នៃក្រមនីតិវិធី ព្រហ្ម​ទណ្ឌ តើសាលាឧទ្ទរណ៍មានសមត្ថកិច្ចធ្វើការជំនុំជំរះលើបណ្តឹងឧទ្ធរណ៍របស់ អ្នក ស្រី គអ លើផ្នែកទោសទណ្ឌកម្ម ដែលតុលាការថ្នាក់ក្រោមបានសំរេចឱ្យជនជាប់ចោទ រួចផុតពីបទចោទប្រកាន់ដែរឬទេ ? ។ ជាគោលការណ៍សាលាឧទ្ធរណ៍ពុំមានសមត្ថកិច្ច ជំនុំជំរះលើករណីនេះបានទេ ពីព្រោះព្រះរាជអាជ្ញា ឬអគ្គព្រះរាជអាជ្ញាសាលាឧទ្ធរណ៍ ពុំ​បានប្តឹងឧទ្ធរណ៍ក្នុងរឿងនេះ ។ ករណីនេះ សាលាឧទ្ធរណ៍មានសមត្ថកិច្ចធ្វើការជំនុំជំរះ បានលើផ្នែកសំណងរដ្ឋប្បវេណីតែប៉ុណ្ណោះ
សមាជិកម្នាក់នៃឧត្តមក្រុមប្រឹក្សានៃអង្គចៅក្រមបានមានប្រសាសន៍បញ្ជាក់ថា​ ឧត្តមក្រុមប្រឹក្សា​នៃអង្គ ចៅក្រម បានប្រជុំពិភាក្សាអំពីករណីនេះ​ ។ គឹសាលាឧទ្ធរណ៍មានសមត្ថកិច្ចធ្វើការជំនុំជំរះ​បង្គាប់ឱ្យជនជាប់ ចោទសងការខូចខាត់ ទៅតាមទំហំនៃព្យសនកម្ម ដែលបាន​កើតឡើង ឱ្យទៅដើមបណ្តឹង រដ្ឋប្បវេណី ​ឬអ្នកទទួលខុសត្រូវផ្នែករដ្ឋប្បវេណី ។ បើសាលាឧទ្ធរណ៍ យល់ឃើញថា​ អង្គហេតុដែលបានកើតឡើងពិតជាកំហុសរបស់ជនជាប់ចោទពិតប្រាកដមែន​។ ប៉ុន្តែសាលាឧទ្ធរណ៍ ពុំមានសមត្ថកិច្ចធ្វើការជំនុំជំរះសម្រេចផ្តន្ទាទោសគុកចំ​​ពោះ ជនជាប់ចោទ​បានឡើយ​​ ។ បើព្រះរាជអាជ្ញា ឬអគ្គព្រះរាជអាជ្ញាអមសាលា ឧទ្ធរណ៍ ពុំបានប្តឹង​ឧធរណ៍ ចំពោះ​សាលក្រមសំរេច ឱ្យជនជាប់ចោទរួចផុតពីបទចោទប្រកាន់ទេ នោះ​។        ដូច្នោះព្រះរាជអាជ្ញា និង​អគ្គព្រះរាជអាជ្ញាអមសាលាឧទ្ធរណ៍ ដើរតួសំខាន់​ ណាស់ ទោះបីពុំមានសិទ្ធិចូលរួមក្នុងការសំរេច​សេចក្តីក៏ដោយ​ ។​ ក្នុងនាមតំណាងឱ្យ​អំណាចនីតិ​ប្រត្តិបតិ​​ ការពារផលប្រយោជន៍សង្គម ធ្វើការ​ចោទប្រកាន់ខាងព្រហ្មទណ្ឌ​និង​សន្និដ្ឋានឱ្យមានការអនុវត្តច្បាប់ ហើយក៏ជាភាគីក្នុងរឿងក្តី​ ។​  គឺត្រូវពិនិត្យពិចារណារឱ្យ បានល្អិតល្អន់រាល់សំណុំរឿងក្តី ដែលស្ថិតក្នុងសមត្ថកិច្ចរបស់ខ្លួន​សំរាប់រយះពេលប្តឹងឧទ្ធ​រណ៍​។ ប្រសិនបើមានការថ្លោះថ្លូយរឿងក្តី ដែលយល់ថានឹងប្តឹងឧទ្ធរណ៍ បែរជាខកខាន​មិន​បានប្តឹងឧទ្ធរណ៍វិញនោះ ហើយសាលាឧទ្ធរណ៍ធ្វើ ការជំនុំជំរះបានសំរេចថា ជនជាប់ ចោទពិតជាមានពិរុទ្ធភាព ។ តែមិនអាចផ្តន្ទាទោសគុកដល់ជន ជាប់ចោទបានដោយសារ ការខកខានមិនបានប្តឹងឧទ្ធរណ៍របស់ព្រះរាជអាជ្ញា​ ឬអគ្គព្រះរាជអាជ្ញា អមសាលាឧទ្ធរណ៍ នោះ ។ ហើយមជ្ឈដ្ឋានជាតិ អន្តរជាតិ ជាពិសេសប្រទេសម្ចាស់ជំនួយ ច្បាស់ជាមាន ការរិះគន់ដល់​ស្ថាប័នតុលាកា​ក្នុងការអនុវត្ត​ច្បាប់ដោយអយុត្តិធម៌ ។ ហើយក៏ជាចំអក ដល់ការកំណែទំរងប្រព័ន្ធ​យុត្តិធម៌​ ដែលស្ថិតក្នុង​វិស័យចតុកោនជាយុត្តិសាស្រ្តរបស់រាជ រដ្ឋាភិបាល​៕

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Friday, February 25, 2011

Cambodian Civil Procedure from Judgment Pronouncement to Compulsory Execution

Dear all student and researcher on civil matter especially on Code of Civil Procedure in Cambodia, we would like to share document with you on procedure from the judgement announcement to compulsory execution. This is a value document that you should understand about procedural matter in the court of Cambodia.
In the paper content the format of writing petition to the court for implementation of finality judgment and other think that you must know.

We are sorry that we have only Khmer version, in case we have in English version will link the source for you.

Please click here to download the book.

If you have any suggestion or comment, please let us know.
We are welcome all critics.

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Thursday, February 24, 2011

Result of meeting between representatives of NGOs with Ministry of Foreign Affairs Yesterday


Date:               February 23, 2011, at 4pm
Venue:             MOFA

Main point of discussions:

-          Alliance/Coalition of LNGO and INGOs:
Alliance of these NGOs will be acceptable and workable but INGO will be allowed to be a Director and Chairperson of the alliance. INGOs will be allowed to be only a member of Alliance and member of boards of Alliance.

-          25 % of administrative costs:
Generally, it is understood that the admin cost are the cost of staff salaries, supply and some others. This point MOI and MOFA will make further elaboration which would be understandable by all. There will be an explanation of admin cost in the glossary of law.

-          Issues of registration:

NGO Alliance and NGOs/Association will be registered with MOI

For the case of CBOs or community organizations, the law will create sort of procedure that CBOs will be able to make their registration with their local authorities.

-          Reporting requirement:
MOI and MOFA will decide on what procedures to done and applied because some of NGOs need reporting format and some others do not need.

-          For registration of INGOs:
It is understood that for the case of INGOs, some of them work as both project implementing and also as donor and while some others are working as only donor NGOs eg. Forumsyd, Diakonia and DCA … and they work through the provision of cooperation and funding to their local partners.

The condition for registration of INGOs is that all INGOs have to have supporting letter from their partner ministry, therefore, if they do not have supporting letter from a line ministry or partner ministry, those INGOs will not be able to make their registration with MOFA.

For this case, it would be a problem for donor eg. Forumsyd, Diakonia and DCA …. who do not have any partnership with any government ministry for them to ask for a supporting letter in order to meet with registration  requirement.

-          Second draft of law:
Mr. Tuy Ry has made know to the NGO that there should be distribution of second draft to NGOs before submission to council of ministry.



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Friday, February 18, 2011

Book on Legal Framework of NGOs in Cambodia


Since 1995, the Cambodian Government has initiated draft laws on NGOs and Associations in order to govern the conduct and operation of NGO’s. Moreover, in the early of the Royal Government in the 4th mandate announced on finalize the NGO and Association Law and according to National Strategy Development Plan 2009-2013 also mentioned on NGOs law as in page 26 “A law on NGOs will be passed after wide consultation with all stakeholders” and page 112 “the Royal Government will continue to pursue the adoption and implementation of Law on Non-Government Organizations (NGOs) and in close consultation with relevant agencies and organization.”. Reference to announcement of Royal Government and it strategy plan, NGO’s have reviewed and considered the proposed laws, and believe that their ability to work on important social issues will be significantly hampered. Human Rights NGO’s are seriously concerned that the government is intent on using the proposed NGO law to control and limit their rights and operations. They fear restriction of the human rights of free assembly and restricted freedom of expression – both rights are guaranteed in the Human Rights Declarations signed by the Cambodian Government as well as in the Cambodian Constitution.

However, NGOs are playing an important role for Cambodian society. They are working directly with people in remote areas to provide legal services, capacity building, and other important activities.  Royal Government of Cambodia recognized NGOs’ development role in Cambodia and also put its strategy to work with NGOs as a partnership. However, the relationship between Royal Government of Cambodia and Non Governmental Organization (particularly human rights NGOs) has not been good since 2008. Because of the stated fear that those NGOs could obtain funds or donations from terrorist groups during his term, the Prime Minister sought enactment of a draft NGO Law by the National Assembly in order to control or manage NGO activities. Currently, the draft is under consideration at the Ministry of Interior (MoI) and the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. On August 10, 2010, MoI issued a letter seeking funding for public consultations. 
Scope of Research
This limited research focuses on:
-         Analyzing the legal framework that covers NGO activities in USA and in Cambodia.
o       Regulation in the USA is complicated, and it may not be a suitable model for Cambodia to follow in its entirety. Therefore we cite only principles that represent good practice and are consistent with the Cambodia context.
o       The legal framework for Cambodia sectors: We focus on the existing legal norms in Cambodia, especially those provided in the constitution, international covenants, and other specifically applicable laws such as the civil and criminal code, anti-corruption law, and taxation law.  We also describe the transitional period in Cambodian practice that deals with registration, functioning, and dissolution of NGOs.

-         The draft NGO law should conform to international principles such as those contained in the ICCPR, ICESCR, and UN Declaration on the Rights to Development.

Please click here (Kh or English) to download the book.


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Tuesday, February 15, 2011

LESBIAN, GAY, BISEXUAL AND TRANSGENDER PEOPLE IN CAMBODIA

We have a good source about gay information in Cambodia. In below information and website link (Cambodian Center for Human Right: www.cchrcambodia.org) is very important for you to understand about the challenging of gay in Cambodia especially, facing of STD and HIV:

As a result of differences in language and culture, the concept of ‘homosexuality’ as understood in the West is not necessarily directly transferable and understandable in the Cambodian context. Rather, the Cambodian understanding of sexuality is derived from concepts of gender, character and personality. The focus on these character traits and outwardly visible characteristics instead of sexual orientation means that many Cambodians who are homosexual do not identify themselves as such.

Among Buddhists, there is a general disposition to tolerate homosexuality. Because Cambodian culture is predominantly Buddhist, homosexuality, whilst seen as an oddity, does not attract the kind of aggressive reaction as can be seen in Christian or Muslim cultures. Buddhism itself places no value on marriage or procreation. Marriage and procreation are considered positive if they bring about love and respect, but may be deemed negative if pain or strife is caused. However, in Cambodia, cultural, social and economic pressures override Buddhist teachings on marriage – family values are incredibly important and pressure is strong for sons and daughters to marry and have children.

King Father Norodom Sihanouk has expressed public support for LGBT people but the views of other politicians have been mixed. In 2007, Prime Minister Hun Sen publicly disowned his adopted daughter for being a lesbian while imploring parents of gay Cambodians not to discriminate against them. The challenges faced by LGBT people in Cambodia have not been acknowledged by the Royal Government of Cambodia (“RGC”) and do not seem to feature on the RGC agenda at all. Homosexuality is not illegal in Cambodia and there are no anti-gay religious traditions. However, LGBT persons in Cambodia still face discrimination and/or abuse from family members, employers, and police.
Cambodian society can be tolerant of male homosexual behavior provided it is discrete and does not affect the traditional family structure. Sexual behavior amongst male youths may be seen as harmless experimentation, since women are expected to remain ‘pure’ until marriage. Youthful indiscretions may be forgotten or may continue unnoticed. However, eventually men are expected to marry and father children. Given traditional gender roles, women have less ability to pursue same-sex relationships than homosexual males, either privately or publicly.

Given the emphasis placed on marriage and children, most LGBT individuals will feel pressured by family to continue the family line. In addition, the lack of a social security system often means that the older generation becomes heavily reliant on the support and care of the younger generations of their family. Pursuing a homosexual relationship is a path most individuals cannot socially or economically afford to take. The risk of ostracism from a close family network and economic difficulties posed by living outside the family network may mean that LGBT persons do not live the lives they wish to or have to conduct homosexual
relationships in secret.

While LGBT persons appear to most commonly face abuse from their own families and communities, they also sometimes suffer at the hands of the State through the actions of those in positions of authority. Those in positions of authority within the state who instigate or oversee discrimination or violence against LGBT individuals may consciously or unconsciously conceive of such treatment as ‘punishment’ for not adhering to accepted social norms. The perpetrators may also feel a sense of entitlement, seeing themselves as of a higher social status and morally superior to LGBT individuals, who they treat as morally deplorable and second-rate
citizens.

Lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender people are entitled to all of the same rights as other individuals. Both Cambodian and international law prohibit discrimination against individuals based on their personal characteristics, guaranteeing equal rights and freedoms and equal application of the law to all individuals.

There are encouraging developments taking place in Cambodia that indicate the emergence of a nascent LGBT community. In 2003, international and Cambodian activists began ‘Pride’ in Phnom Penh, an annual celebration and recognition of LGBT rights which includes workshops, film festivals, art exhibits and social gatherings and coincides with the International Day against Homophobia. This culminated in the largest Pride event in Phnom Penh in 2009, with an attendance of over 400 people. Following the success of this event, its coordinators decided to establish RoCK. The purpose of this group is to support, strengthen and extend the existing LGBT community in Cambodia and to raise awareness and understanding of LGBT issues and rights.
The organization is sub-divided into four working groups: Community education, LGBT rights and advocacy, Lesbian support, and the Pride Organization Committee 2010. The establishment of RoCK indicates a clear progression for LGBT people in Cambodia to actively pursue their human rights.

The internet has allowed gay Cambodian people to connect to other gay people, thus raising awareness of a wider, global LGBT community and the possibilities of participating in this. The LGBT social life has improved in Cambodia with Phnom Penh and Siem Reap having what might be described as intimate LGBT social scenes. While these developments are encouraging, it is important to note that most Cambodians live in rural areas and therefore are not exposed to developments occurring mainly in Phnom Penh or online communities.
The CCHR’s LGBT Rights Project will aim to empower both rural and urban LGBT Cambodians, providing information and coordination to allow LGBT Groups and Individuals to network effectively and providing training for documenting instances of abuse occurring throughout Cambodia. The LGBT Rights Project will support LGBT Cambodians in advocating for the recognition of the fact that LGBT people have the same human rights as everyone else.

Thank so much for website of CCHR which provided the value document on this issue.

For more information please related to Khmer or English please click here: Kh and En

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Monday, February 14, 2011

Assement of the Situation of Children in Conflict with Law

Please link here to read this document. Or go to this website: http://childjustice.org/html/journal_issue05.htm

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Saturday, February 12, 2011

RGC attacked Thai government want to interrupt to list Preah Vihear as international heritage

This is a document of Royal Government of Cambodia attacked against Thai government that want to interrupt to list Preah Vihear temple as international heritage, please link here to reach the document in Khmer version.


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THE TEMPLE OF PREAH VIHEAR INSCRIBED ON THE WORLD HERITAGE LIST (UNESCO) SINCE 2008

Please click here to link the book on this matter. 

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Cambodian Society of Comparative Law

This is a good book for Cambodian Students who study on law sector should understand it. However this book is available in English version only. If you want to know more this whether have Khmer version or not you contact directly to East West Management Institute www.ewmi-praj.org, based in Phnom Penh. Or you con link this one for download the book. Please click here.  

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Thursday, February 10, 2011

Sex make you get healthy

Sex make your get healthy... this article not not promote you to have sex someone without using condom.
It's good material for you to understand about sex as well. Please click to link download article.
This article has only Khmer version.

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UN rapporteur will discuss NGOs law with government


Those of you who miss the press this AM, please note that the NGO law will be one of the issue to discussed/raised by the UN rapporteur during this upcoming visit – This is useful and indeed a reflection of our collective advocacy voice on this particular issue.
We will keep you posted.

The title of UN Envoy of Human Rights Return To Cambodia please click here
The title of UN H.R to make visit please link here  


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Tuesday, February 8, 2011

Alternative Dispute Resolution in Cambodia

We have only Khmer version on Alternative Dispute Resolution in Cambodia context. Please click here you will see this article.

Thanks

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